Gender Pay Gap

Gender Pay Gap - 2017/18

The Equality Act 2010 (Specific Duties and Public Authorities) Regulations 2017 place certain duties on public sector organisations with 250 or more employees to report on their gender pay gap.

The Gender Pay Gap is different to the Equal Pay Gap. The key differences are:

  • Equal Pay deals with pay differences between men and women who carry out the same jobs, similar jobs or work of equal value;
  • Gender Pay Gap shows the difference in the average pay between men and women.

Gender pay reporting is not a review of equal pay for equal work; it instead compares hourly rates of pay and any bonuses staff may receive by gender, seeking to expose any imbalance.  Following further analysis of the results, some assumptions can be made about why the current pay gap exists. The analysis and findings allow North Wales Police to understand where to direct positive action interventions in order to close the gender pay gap in future years.

The figures below include all police officers and police staff who were employed by North Wales Police on the "snapshot date", which was 31st March 2017.

The mean average is calculated by adding together all of the numbers in a set and then dividing the sum by the total count of numbers. The median is calculated by arranging each number in order by size; the number in the middle is the median.

The mean and median pay gap

Women’s hourly rate is:

  • Mean 12.9% lower than males   (2016/17: Mean 14.7% lower than males) 
  • Median 19.0% lower than males (2016/17: Median 17.3% lower than males)

The mean and median bonus pay gap

Women’s bonus pay is:

  • Mean 51.6% lower than males (2016/17: Mean 23.4% lower than males)
  • Median 86.4% lower than males (2016/17: Median 0% lower than males)

Proportion of male and female employees receiving a bonus payment

  • Male 2.7% (2016/17: Male 0.4%)
  • Female 2.2% (2016/17: Female 1.0%)

Proportion of male and female employees in each salary quartile band

Top quartile 

  • Male 71.8%  (2016/17: Male 75.3%)
  • Female 28.2%  (2016/17: Female 24.7%)

Upper middle quartile

  • Male 59.4%  (2016/17: Male 61.1%)
  • Female 40.6% (2016/17: Female 38.9%)

Lower middle quartile

  • Male 43.2%  (2016/17: Male 45.3%)
  • Female 56.8%  (2016/17: Female 54.7%)

Lower quartile

  • Male 40.6% (2016/17: Male 37.2%)
  • Female 59.4% (2016/17: Female 62.8%)

 

Understanding the pay gap

To understand the NWP gender pay gap it is key to recognise the following points; these factors combined have an overall effect of exacerbating any pay gap:

  • In the Police Service levels of pay for police officers and police staff are determined nationally by separate pay bodies;
  • On average the pay points for police officers are at a higher rate than that of police staff;
  • NWP has more police officers (53.5%) than police staff (46.5%);
  • NWP has more male police officers (65.2%) than female police officers (34.8%);
  • NWP has more female police staff (60.4%) than male police staff (39.6%);

It is therefore useful to separate the two groups and report separately on their respective pay gaps:

The mean and median pay gap for Police Officer

Women’s hourly rate is:

  • Mean 8.9% lower than males (2016/17: 11.4% lower than males)
  • Median 0.5% lower than males (2016/17: 1.7% lower than males)

 

The mean and median pay gap for Police Staff

Women’s hourly rate is:

  • Mean 7.5% lower than males (2016/17: 9.5% lower than males)
  • Median 5.5% lower than males (2016/17: 7.7% lower than males)

NWP has recognised that it needs to make efforts to tackle under-representation in the police service. Attracting more females to join as police officers and improving progression for both female police officers and female police staff continues to be a key priority within our Positive Action Strategy and Delivery Plan.

We continue to encourage more females to join as police officers, and this remains a key priority. This has led to a variety of initiatives aimed at increasing representation of females and applicants from across all protected characteristics.

 

A reduction in the pay gap

This year’s report shows that the NWP gender pay gap has reduced. In comparison to last year, there has been a slight percentage point increase in female officers in the upper pay quartile, whilst the percentage of females in the lower pay quartile has decreased. We can see by looking at the length of service of our employees that there are fewer females in the 0-5 and 5-9 years of service groups compared with last year’s figures and slightly more in the 10-15 years of service group.

 

Understanding how we award bonuses

The Chief Constable may award bonuses of between £50 and £500 per head for occasional work of an outstandingly demanding, an unpleasant or of an important nature. The following paragraphs are intended to be illustrative and not exhaustive:

  • Outstandingly – should be interpreted as work of note, or which is priority work and requires additional effort to be made by the individual/s completing the work.
  • Demanding – refers to work that is over and above that which would normally be expected from a member of staff in their role/rank.
  • Unpleasant – refers to work that has actual or potential psychological considerations, identified by its demanding and intense nature. Alternatively work which is extremely distasteful, dirty and/or pungent in nature or work undertaken in disagreeable working conditions and environment.
  • Important – refers to work which is seen as having a major effect, both within, or external to the Force, and as such is considered to be influential.

Reward / Bonus payments are taxable and non-pensionable, and can include thank you cards, small gifts to the value of £50 e.g. store vouchers; these are allocated at the discretion of the Service Lead or Department Head.  Service Leads can also recommend awards over £50 up to a maximum of £500; these are processed and dealt with via a Force Awards Panel.  Examples of financial awards can include gym membership, donations to a charity of NWP choice or cash payment through salary.

 

An increase in bonus pay gap

This reporting year 71 individuals received bonus payments, compared with 18 in the previous period.

The majority of the payments over £50 (26) were made to teams of employees made up of individuals in ‘specialist’ roles. We find the make-up of these teams is more likely to have a majority of male police officers; for example one team of five has two females, one team of eleven has one female and one team of nine has three females.  This indicates that team composition may explain the increase in this year’s bonus pay gap.

Most rewards are under £50 in value, if we consider these separately; the mean and median pay gap is no longer evident and actually shows that females had a higher mean and median bonus payment than their male counterparts.

Mean and median bonus pay gap for payments of £50 and under:

Women's bonus pay:

  • Median 4.3% higher than males
  • Median 32.8% higher than males

What NWP will continue to do to address the Gender Pay Gap

  • NWP has a specific Positive Action Working Group that has established the Positive Action Strategy and Delivery Plan which supports our activities in this area.
  • NWP has recruited a Positive Action Officer to implement the aforementioned Strategy and Plan.
  • NWP are encouraging more females to join as police officers by utilising recruitment strategies and initiatives aimed at increasing representation of females - this is already having a positive effect.
  • NWP has a staff support group, Women’s Association of NWP (WANWP) dedicated to supporting women within the workplace. This is chaired by senior leaders within the organisation, and continues to raise and identify issues, obstacles and challenges affecting females in policing.
  • NWP has proactively supported targeted seminars and workshops to familiarise potential candidates with the application process and to provide the opportunity to ask questions.
  • NWP will continue to amplify the work of senior female officers and staff, and those in specialist roles, to improve visibility of role models and demonstrate potential career paths.
  • Flexible Working across NWP is available to ensure that officers and staff with caring responsibilities are supported and to encourage a good work-life balance.
  • All police staff roles are “job evaluated”, in conjunction with the recognised trade union, which ensures that roles are evaluated fairly and consistently.
  • NWP prioritises employee wellbeing, having signed up to the Mind Time to Change Pledge and the College of Policing Blue Light Framework in 2018, and has a wide range of services that provide wellbeing support to all officers and staff.
  • All job opportunities are now advertised externally as well as internally to enable as broad a range of applicants as possible.
  • NWP will continue to review police officer promotion processes and how we might better support females in applying for and securing more senior officer roles.
  • NWP will continue to run specific initiatives that aim to improve career and development pathways for female police officers and staff.

Conclusion

The figures set out above were calculated using standard methodologies within the Equality Act 2010 (Specific Duties and Public Authorities) Regulations 2017. It can already be seen that the work undertaken in recent years has had a positive impact on the recruitment of female officers into NWP.

The report finds In comparison to last year, the mean gender pay gap related to:

  • All employees has reduced from 14.7% to 12.9%
  • Officers has reduced from 11.4% to 8.9%
  • Staff has reduced from 9.5% to 7.5%

In comparison to last year, the median gender pay gap related to:

  • all employees has increased from 17.3% to 19.0%
  • Officers has reduced from 1.7% to 0.5%
  • Staff has reduced from 7.7% to 5.5%

 

Name: Richard Muirhead

Position: Director of Finance and Resources, North Wales Police.